Alvin Toffler (1990) describes a new model of production springing from what he calls the super-symbolic economy (p.79). This is characterized by an expansion of the set of functions seen as pertinent to production, so as to include prior processes such as training, and subsequent functions such as aftercare and ecologically safe disposal of the product after use.

Such a model (and much more) was sketched by Fuller about 60 years previously. The lag is spelt out in Design Torpor.

The above passage from Toffler can be compared with Universal Requirements.

It is this conception of production as embracing such things as the scheduling of delivery trucks, which lies behind Fuller's prevention of the commercial hi-jacking of the Dymaxion Dwelling Machine project.



Paul Taylor 2001