The earliest version of Universal Requirements was put together by Fuller in 1928. In 1930 he revised it and published it in Shelter magazine in 1931. In 1938 it was revised again and pubished in Nine Chains To The Moon. The expanded and revised version is found in the Reader and in No More Secondhand God.

Bearing in mind these dates and the comprehensiveness of the text, we can sample the conceptual progress of contemporary architects in this quote from the Guardian's Environment section (5th Oct., 1990):

"Ten years ago it was perfectly understandable if an architect didn't know which way to turn when asked to design an efficient building. Today there is no excuse. There are plenty of environmental consultants around."
(J. Doggart, of "Energy Conscious Design")

A sad case of Pre-Dymaxion Architecture.



Paul Taylor 2001