"Universe has no pollution," says Fuller in Earth, Inc., (p.168).

This is not only because all the chemicals normally called pollutants naturally "belong" in the Universe, but also because on Spaceship Earth what might be a waste product of one industry may be a raw material for another.

He estimates that "all the sulphur emitted annually from the world's industrial chimneys" is equivalent to "the amount of sulphur being taken annually to keep industry going".

This is reminiscent of Benjamin Franklin's suggestion that "coal smoke, being unburnt carbon, should be utilized a second time in the furnace" (Mumford, 1933, p.167).



Paul Taylor 2001